- Russian Planetary Exploration: History, Development, Legacy, and Prospects, by Brian Harvey: Springer, 2007.
Adopted by IAU
May 30, 2019
Series of the Soviet Union’s 16 spacecraft sent to Venus in 1961–1983. The missions accomplished a number of firsts, including the first human made device to enter the atmosphere of another planet (Venera 3, 1966), to measure in situ atmosphere composition of another planet (Venera 4, 1967), to make a soft landing on another planet (Venera 7, 1970), and to return images from another planetary surface (Venera 9, 1975).